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Canadian Aviation Regulations (SOR/96-433)

Regulations are current to 2022-09-22 and last amended on 2022-03-06. Previous Versions

Part VI — General Operating and Flight Rules (continued)

Subpart 4 — Private Operators (continued)

Division IV — Flight Operations — Special Authorizations (continued)

Instrument Procedures — GNSS

 No person shall conduct an instrument procedure using a GNSS receiver in an aircraft operated by a private operator unless

  • (a) the private operator is authorized to do so under a special authorization;

  • (b) every flight crew member has received the following training for which the validity period has not expired:

    • (i) ground training in

      • (A) the GNSS and its theory of operation,

      • (B) the operation of the model of GNSS receiver that will be used, and

      • (C) the actions to be taken in response to GNSS receiver warnings and messages, and

    • (ii) in-flight training

      • (A) in the operation of the model of GNSS receiver that will be used,

      • (B) in the actions to be taken in response to GNSS receiver warnings and messages,

      • (C) in the use of the GNSS receiver for instrument procedures and other associated duties for each crew position that the flight crew member will occupy,

      • (D) provided

        • (I) on board an aircraft, or

        • (II) using a Level C or D flight simulator equipped with the same model of GNSS receiver as is installed in the private operator’s aircraft or with a model with a user interface comparable to the user interface of that GNSS receiver, and

      • (E) provided by a pilot who has received training on the same model of GNSS receiver as is installed in the private operator’s aircraft or on a model with a user interface comparable to the user interface of that GNSS receiver;

  • (c) every flight crew member has demonstrated to the private operator the ability to conduct an instrument approach using a GNSS receiver in accordance with this section;

  • (d) the coverage area of the GNSS receiver database is compatible with the area of operation in which the aircraft will be operated;

  • (e) the private operator has established procedures to ensure that

    • (i) the GNSS receiver database is updated so that it remains current,

    • (ii) flight crew members who identify GNSS receiver database errors communicate those errors to the private operator, and

    • (iii) the GNSS receiver database errors identified are communicated to the private operator’s other personnel and to the GNSS receiver database provider;

  • (f) if the aircraft is designed to be operated by one flight crew member, the GNSS course deviation and distance displays are located at the pilot station normally occupied by the pilot-in-command and within the primary field of vision of the flight crew member who occupies the pilot station;

  • (g) if the aircraft is designed to be operated by two flight crew members, the GNSS course deviation and distance displays are located at each pilot station and within the primary field of vision of the flight crew member who occupies the pilot station;

  • (h) if the aircraft is designed to be operated by one flight crew member, but can be operated by two flight crew members,

    • (i) the control display unit that is linked to the GNSS receiver is centrally located in relation to the two pilot stations and provides navigation information that is visible to the pilot not flying, or

    • (ii) the GNSS course deviation and distance displays are located at each pilot station and within the primary field of vision of the flight crew members who occupy those pilot stations; and

  • (i) the private operator has established GNSS approach procedures in order to prevent confusion between GNSS distance information and distance measuring equipment (DME) information.

  • SOR/2014-131, s. 18
Precision Approaches — CAT II and CAT III

 No person shall conduct a CAT II or a CAT III precision approach in an aircraft operated by a private operator unless

  • (a) the private operator is authorized to do so under a special authorization;

  • (b) the requirements of section 602.128 are met;

  • (c) every flight crew member has received, in respect of CAT II and CAT III precision approaches, ground training for which the validity period has not expired that includes the following elements:

    • (i) the characteristics, capabilities and limitations of the instrument landing system (ILS), including how its performance is affected by interference from other airborne or taxiing aircraft and from ground vehicles,

    • (ii) the characteristics of the visual aids and the limitations on their use in reduced visibility at the various glide path angles and cockpit cut-off angles, and the height at which visual cues are expected to appear in actual operating conditions,

    • (iii) the operation, capabilities and limitations of the airborne systems,

    • (iv) the procedures and techniques for an approach, a missed approach and a rejected landing, and a description of the factors affecting height loss during a missed approach in normal and abnormal aircraft configurations,

    • (v) the use and limitations of RVR, including the applicability of RVR readings from different positions along the runway,

    • (vi) obstacle limitation surfaces, obstacle-free zones, missed approach design criteria, obstacle clearance for a CAT II or CAT III precision approach, and obstacle clearance for a go-around and a rejected landing,

    • (vii) the effects of turbulence, precipitation and low level windshear,

    • (viii) the procedures and techniques for making the transition from instrument flight to visual flight in low RVR conditions, including the geometry of eye, wheel and antenna positions in relation to ILS reference datum height,

    • (ix) the actions to be taken if the required visual reference becomes inadequate when the aircraft is below the decision height, and the technique to be used for making the transition from visual flight to instrument flight if a go-around is necessary,

    • (x) the actions to be taken in the event of a failure of the approach and landing equipment above and below the decision height or alert height,

    • (xi) the recognition of a failure of the ground equipment, and the actions to be taken in the event of such a failure,

    • (xii) the factors to be taken into account in the determination of the decision height or alert height,

    • (xiii) the effect of aircraft malfunctions, including engine failure, on auto-throttle and auto-pilot performance,

    • (xiv) the procedures to be followed and the precautions to be taken while taxiing in reduced visibility, and

    • (xv) the standard operating procedures to be followed by flight crew members in normal, abnormal and emergency conditions;

  • (d) every flight crew member has received, in respect of CAT II and CAT III precision approaches, training on a synthetic flight training device that includes the following elements:

    • (i) two approaches, at least one of which is in an engine-out configuration if the aircraft is certified under Part V to perform in that configuration,

    • (ii) a missed approach from the lowest minima specified in the special authorization, or a rejected landing, as applicable,

    • (iii) an automatic landing or a manual landing from one of the approaches, as applicable, at the maximum crosswind authorized for the aircraft, and

    • (iv) for CAT III approaches based on the use of a fail-passive rollout control system, a manual rollout using visual references or a combination of visual and instrument references;

  • (e) every flight crew member has received, in respect of CAT II and CAT III precision approaches, training on a synthetic flight training device for which the validity period has not expired that includes the following elements:

    • (i) one precision approach resulting in a landing, and

    • (ii) a missed approach from the lowest minima specified in the special authorization, or a rejected landing, as applicable; and

  • (f) every flight crew member has demonstrated to the private operator the ability to operate the aircraft in accordance with this section.

Instrument Procedures — Restricted Canada Air Pilot

 No person shall, in an aircraft operated by a private operator, conduct an instrument procedure that is specified in the Restricted Canada Air Pilot for an aerodrome unless

  • (a) the private operator is authorized to do so under a special authorization;

  • (b) the person conducts the procedure in accordance with the requirements set out in the Restricted Canada Air Pilot in respect of the procedure; and

  • (c) every flight crew member has received the training necessary to mitigate the risks or hazards associated with that procedure with respect to the safety of the aircraft, persons or property, and the validity period for that training has not expired.

  • SOR/2014-131, s. 18
CMNPS and RNPC Requirements

 No person shall file a flight plan indicating that an aircraft operated by a private operator can be operated in accordance with Canadian minimum navigation performance specifications (CMNPS) or required navigation performance capability (RNPC) unless

  • (a) the private operator is authorized under a special authorization to operate the aircraft in accordance with CMNPS or RNPC;

  • (b) every flight crew member has received CMNPS or RNPC training, for which the validity period has not expired, in

    • (i) normal operating procedures, including long-range navigation system pre-flight data entry and periodic cross-checking of the system position display against the aircraft position,

    • (ii) the method of monitoring and cross-checking the long-range navigation system that is coupled to the auto-pilot,

    • (iii) the actions to be taken in the event of a discrepancy among long-range navigation systems, and the method of determining which is the most accurate or reliable system,

    • (iv) contingency procedures,

    • (v) the actions to be taken in the event of a failure of one or more long-range navigation systems,

    • (vi) the procedure for manually updating long-range navigation systems,

    • (vii) airborne emergency procedures, including realignment, if applicable,

    • (viii) the procedure for regaining track after a deliberate or accidental deviation from the cleared track, and

    • (ix) RNAV systems; and

  • (c) the aircraft is equipped with at least two independent long-range navigation systems or is operated as follows:

    • (i) in the case of an aircraft equipped only with the radio navigation equipment referred to in paragraph 605.18(j), the aircraft is operated only on high level airways, and

    • (ii) in the case of an aircraft equipped with at least two independent navigation systems, one of which is a long-range navigation system, the aircraft is operated only in RNPC airspace

      • (A) on high level fixed RNAV routes,

      • (B) on direct routes that begin and end within the reception range of ground-based navigation aids, or

      • (C) on high level airways.

RNPC Requirements — High Level Fixed RNAV Routes
[SOR/2019-122, s. 8(F)]

 No person shall file a flight plan indicating that an aircraft operated by a private operator can be operated on a high level fixed RNAV route in accordance with required navigation performance capability (RNPC) unless

  • (a) the private operator is authorized under a special authorization to operate the aircraft in accordance with RNPC;

  • (b) every flight crew member has received RNPC training, for which the validity period has not expired, in

    • (i) normal operating procedures, including navigation system pre-flight data entry and periodic cross-checking of the system position display against the aircraft position,

    • (ii) the method of monitoring and cross-checking the navigation system that is coupled to the auto-pilot,

    • (iii) the actions to be taken in the event of a discrepancy among navigation systems, and the method of determining which is the most accurate or reliable system,

    • (iv) contingency procedures,

    • (v) the actions to be taken in the event of a failure of one or more navigation systems,

    • (vi) the procedure for manually updating navigation systems,

    • (vii) airborne emergency procedures, including realignment, if applicable,

    • (viii) the procedure for regaining track after a deliberate or accidental deviation from the cleared track, and

    • (ix) RNAV systems; and

  • (c) the aircraft is equipped with at least two independent navigation systems, one of which is a long-range navigation system.

  • SOR/2014-131, s. 18
NAT-MNPS Requirements
  •  (1) No person shall file a flight plan indicating that an aircraft operated by a private operator can be operated in accordance with North Atlantic minimum navigation performance specifications (NAT-MNPS) unless

    • (a) the private operator is authorized under a special authorization to operate the aircraft in accordance with NAT-MNPS;

    • (b) every flight crew member has received NAT-MNPS training, for which the validity period has not expired, in

      • (i) normal operating procedures, including long-range navigation system pre-flight data entry and periodic cross-checking of the system position display against the aircraft position,

      • (ii) the method of monitoring and cross-checking the long-range navigation system that is coupled to the auto-pilot,

      • (iii) the actions to be taken in the event of a discrepancy among long-range navigation systems, and the method of determining which is the most accurate or reliable system,

      • (iv) contingency procedures,

      • (v) the actions to be taken in the event of a failure of one or more long-range navigation systems,

      • (vi) the procedure for manually updating long-range navigation systems,

      • (vii) airborne emergency procedures, including realignment, if applicable,

      • (viii) the procedure for regaining track after a deliberate or accidental deviation from the cleared track, and

      • (ix) RNAV systems; and

    • (c) subject to subsections (2) and (4), the aircraft is equipped with at least two independent long-range navigation systems.

  • (2) No person shall operate, in NAT-MNPS airspace, an aircraft operated by a private operator that is equipped with only one long-range navigation system, or that has only one functioning long-range navigation system, except on routes that are specified by the civil aviation authority of a contracting state as routes for aircraft equipped with only one long-range navigation system.

  • (3) If the long-range navigation system referred to in subsection (2) is a GNSS receiver, it may be used if

    • (a) a Canadian Technical Standard Order (CAN-TSO) design approval has been issued in respect of the GNSS receiver; or

    • (b) the GNSS receiver meets the performance requirements of Technical Standard Order TSO-C196a, Airborne Supplemental Navigation Sensors for Global Positioning System Equipment Using Aircraft-Based Augmentation, published by the Federal Aviation Administration of the United States.

  • (4) No person shall operate, in NAT-MNPS airspace, an aircraft operated by a private operator that is equipped only with short-range navigation equipment (VOR, DME, ADF), except on routes G3 or G11.

  • SOR/2014-131, s. 18
RVSM Requirements

 No person shall file a flight plan indicating that an aircraft operated by a private operator can be operated in accordance with reduced vertical separation minima (RVSM) unless

  • (a) the private operator is authorized under a special authorization to operate the aircraft in accordance with RVSM;

  • (b) every flight crew member has received RVSM training, for which the validity period has not expired, in

    • (i) the floor, ceiling and horizontal boundaries of RVSM airspace,

    • (ii) rules on the exclusion of non-RVSM-compliant aircraft from the airspace,

    • (iii) the procedures to be followed by flight crew members with respect to

      • (A) pre-flight and in-flight altimeter checks,

      • (B) use of the automatic altitude control system,

      • (C) items on the minimum equipment list,

      • (D) in-flight contingencies,

      • (E) weather deviation procedures,

      • (F) track offset procedures for wake turbulence,

      • (G) inconsequential collision-avoidance systems alerts, and

      • (H) pilot level-off call,

    • (iv) procedures relating to non-RVSM-compliant aircraft required to carry out ferry flights, humanitarian flights or delivery flights, and

    • (v) the use of an Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) and a Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS);

  • (c) the aircraft meets the following eligibility requirements set out in Advisory Circular 91–85, entitled Authorization of Aircraft and Operators for Flight in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Airspace, published by the Federal Aviation Administration of the United States:

    • (i) in respect of aircraft performance, the requirements set out in paragraphs 8c(3), 8c(4), 8c(8), 8d and 10b(5)(d)6, and

    • (ii) in respect of aircraft equipment, the requirements set out in paragraphs 9a to 9d;

  • (d) the private operator meets the aircraft continued airworthiness maintenance requirements set out in paragraphs 11d, 11e and 11g of the advisory circular referred to in paragraph (c); and

  • (e) the aircraft is equipped with a navigation system that meets the requirements set out in paragraph 1.3.3, subparagraphs 1.3.4a) and b), and paragraph 1.3.5 of NAT Doc 007, entitled Guidance Concerning Air Navigation In and Above the North Atlantic MNPS Airspace, published by ICAO.

  • SOR/2014-131, s. 18
 
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