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Canadian Aviation Regulations (SOR/96-433)

Regulations are current to 2022-06-20 and last amended on 2022-03-06. Previous Versions

Part VII — Commercial Air Services (continued)

Subpart 4 — Commuter Operations (continued)

Division IV — Aeroplane Performance Operating Limitations (continued)

Enroute Limitations with One Engine Inoperative

 No person shall operate a multi-engined aircraft with passengers on board if the weight of the aircraft is greater than the weight that will allow the aircraft to maintain, with any engine inoperative, the following altitudes:

  • (a) when operating in IMC or in IFR flight on airways or air routes, the MOCA of the route to be flown;

  • (b) when operating in IMC or in night VFR flight on routes established by an air operator, the MOCA of the route to be flown; and

  • (c) when operating in VFR flight, at least 500 feet above the surface.

Dispatch Limitations: Landing at Destination and Alternate Aerodromes
  •  (1) Subject to subsection (3), no person shall dispatch or conduct a take-off in an aeroplane unless

    • (a) in the case of a turbo-jet-powered aeroplane, the weight of the aeroplane on landing at the destination aerodrome and at the alternate aerodrome will allow a full-stop landing within 60% of the landing distance available (LDA);

    • (b) in the case of a large aeroplane that is propeller-driven, the weight of the aeroplane on landing at the destination aerodrome and at the alternate aerodrome will allow a full-stop landing within 70% of the landing distance available (LDA); or

    • (c) in the case of a large aeroplane that is propeller-driven and equipped with reverse thrust, the weight of the aeroplane on landing at the destination aerodrome and at the alternate aerodrome will allow a full-stop landing within 80% of the landing distance available (LDA) if

      • (i) the approach speed does not exceed an indicated airspeed of 100 knots, taking into account the estimated weight of the aeroplane, the flap setting and the ambient conditions expected on arrival,

      • (ii) the reverse thrust is operative and the runway surface conditions permit the use of full-rated reverse thrust,

      • (iii) the aeroplane is operated on a paved, hard-surface runway,

      • (iv) the runway surface is forecast to be bare and dry at the estimated time of arrival,

      • (v) each flight crew member has completed specific training on short-field landing techniques on that type of aeroplane within the 12 months preceding the flight, and

      • (vi) the glide-path angle specified in the Canada Air Pilot or the Restricted Canada Air Pilot is not greater than 3 degrees and the runway threshold crossing height is not greater than 15 m (50 feet).

  • (2) In determining whether an aeroplane may be dispatched or a take-off may be conducted under subsection (1), the following shall be taken into account:

    • (a) the pressure-altitude at the destination aerodrome and at the alternate aerodrome;

    • (b) a wind component that is not more than 50% of the reported headwind or not less than 150% of the reported tailwind at the destination aerodrome and at the alternate aerodrome; and

    • (c) the suitability of the runway with respect to the wind speed and direction, the ground handling characteristics of the aeroplane, the landing aids and the terrain.

  • (3) If conditions at the destination aerodrome at the time of take-off do not permit compliance with the requirement set out in paragraph (2)(c), an aeroplane may be dispatched and a take-off may be conducted if conditions at the alternate aerodrome designated in the operational flight plan permit, at the time of take-off, compliance with the requirements set out in paragraph (1)(a) or (b) and subsection (2).

Dispatch Limitations: Wet Runway — Turbo-jet-powered Aeroplanes
  •  (1) Subject to subsection (2), when weather reports or forecasts indicate that the runway may be wet at the estimated time of arrival, no person shall dispatch or conduct a take-off in a turbo-jet-powered aeroplane unless the landing distance available (LDA) at the destination airport is at least 115 per cent of the landing distance required pursuant to paragraph 704.49(1)(a).

  • (2) The landing distance available on a wet runway may be shorter than that required by subsection (1), but not shorter than that required by section 704.49, if the aircraft flight manual includes specific information about landing distances on wet runways.

Take-off and Landing on Gravel Runways
  •  (1) No air operator shall authorize a flight from or to a gravel runway in an aeroplane unless the company operations manual sets out procedures for take-offs and landings on gravel runways.

  • (2) No person shall conduct a take-off or landing in an aeroplane on a gravel runway unless the person has

    • (a) received ground training that includes the characteristics of take-off and landing surfaces, the conduct of obstacle assessments, and the air operator’s procedures for take-offs and landings on gravel runways;

    • (b) conducted, within the previous two years, at least one take-off and one landing on a gravel runway in an aeroplane of the same type as the one to be operated; and

    • (c) been certified by the chief pilot as being competent to conduct take-offs and landings on gravel runways.

Take-off and Landing on Unprepared Surfaces

 No person shall conduct a take-off or a landing on an unprepared surface in an aeroplane for which the aircraft flight manual does not set out any information relating to unprepared surface operations, unless

  • (a) the aeroplane is propeller-driven;

  • (b) the air operator has set out, in the company operations manual, procedures for take-offs and landings on unprepared surfaces, including

    • (i) procedures for obtaining the air operator’s approval for unprepared surface operations, and

    • (ii) procedures for assessing unprepared surfaces and unfamiliar approach and departure paths; and

  • (c) before acting as pilot-in-command during a take-off or a landing on an unprepared surface, the person has

    • (i) acquired at least 100 hours of flight time in an aeroplane of the same type as the one to be operated,

    • (ii) received ground and flight training that includes the characteristics of take-off and landing surfaces, the conduct of obstacle assessments and the interpretation of the applicable aeroplane performance information specified in the aircraft flight manual,

    • (iii) acquired at least 25 hours of line indoctrination training that includes unprepared surface operations, and

    • (iv) been certified by the chief pilot or his or her delegate as being competent to conduct take-offs and landings on unprepared surfaces.

[704.53 to 704.61 reserved]

Division V — Aircraft Equipment Requirements

General Requirements
  •  (1) No person shall operate an aircraft in IMC unless the aircraft is equipped with

    • (a) at least two generators, each of which, subject to subsection (2), is driven by a separate engine, and at least half of which have a sufficient rating to supply the electrical loads of all instruments and equipment necessary for the safe emergency operation of the aircraft; and

    • (b) two independent sources of energy and a means of selecting either source, at least one source of energy being an engine-driven pump or generator, and each source of energy being able to drive all gyroscopic instruments and being installed so that the failure of one instrument or one source of energy will affect neither the energy supply to the remaining instruments nor the other source of energy.

  • (2) In the case of a multi-engined helicopter, the generators required by paragraph (1)(a) may be driven by the main rotor drive train.

  • (3) No person shall operate an aircraft at night unless the aircraft is equipped with at least one landing light.

Operation of Aircraft in Icing Conditions
  •  (1) When icing conditions are reported to exist or are forecast to be encountered along the route of flight, no person shall authorize a flight or its continuation or conduct a take-off or continue a flight in an aircraft, even if the pilot-in-command determines that the aircraft is adequately equipped to operate in icing conditions in accordance with paragraph 605.30(a), if, in the opinion of the pilot-in-command, the safety of the flight might be adversely affected.

  • (2) No person shall operate an aeroplane in icing conditions at night unless the aeroplane is equipped with a means to illuminate or otherwise detect the formation of ice.

  • SOR/2009-152, s. 16
Airborne Thunderstorm Detection and Weather Radar Equipment

 No person shall operate an aircraft with passengers on board in IMC when current weather reports or forecasts indicate that thunderstorms may reasonably be expected along the route to be flown, unless the aircraft is equipped with thunderstorm detection equipment or weather radar equipment.

Additional Equipment for Single-pilot Operations

 No person shall operate an aircraft on a single-pilot operation in IMC unless the aircraft is equipped with

  • (a) an auto-pilot that is capable of operating the aircraft controls to maintain flight and manoeuvre the aircraft about the lateral and longitudinal axes;

  • (b) a headset with a boom microphone or equivalent and a transmit button on the control column; and

  • (c) a chart holder that is equipped with a light and that is placed in an easily readable position.

Protective Breathing Equipment
  •  (1) No air operator shall operate a pressurized aircraft unless protective breathing equipment with a 15-minute supply of breathing gas at a pressure-altitude of 8,000 feet is readily available at each flight crew member position.

  • (2) The protective breathing equipment referred to in subsection (1) may be used to meet the crew member oxygen requirements specified in section 605.31.

First Aid Oxygen

 No air operator shall operate an aircraft with passengers on board above FL 250 unless the aircraft is equipped with oxygen dispensing units and an undiluted supply of first aid oxygen sufficient to provide at least one passenger with oxygen for at least one hour or the entire duration of the flight at a cabin pressure-altitude above 8,000 feet, after an emergency descent following cabin depressurization, whichever period is longer.

Shoulder Harnesses

 No person shall operate an aircraft unless the pilot seat and any seat beside the pilot seat are equipped with a safety belt that includes a shoulder harness.

Pitot Heat Indication System

 After June 30, 2008, no person shall conduct a takeoff in a transport category aeroplane, or in a non-transport category aeroplane in respect of which a type certificate was issued after December 31, 1964, that is equipped with a flight instrument Pitot heating system unless the aeroplane is also equipped with a Pitot heat indication system that meets the requirements of section 525.1326 of Chapter 525 — Transport Category Aeroplanes of the Airworthiness Manual.

  • SOR/2007-78, s. 2
ACAS
  •  (1) Subject to subsection (4), no air operator shall operate, in airspace outside RVSM airspace, a turbine-powered aeroplane having an MCTOW greater than 5 700 kg (12,566 pounds) but less than or equal to 15 000 kg (33,069 pounds) or an aeroplane that is not a turbine-powered aeroplane having an MCTOW greater than 5 700 kg (12,566 pounds), unless the aeroplane is equipped with an operative ACAS that

    • (a) meets the requirements of CAN-TSO-C118 or a more recent version of it or other requirements that the Minister has accepted as providing a level of safety that is at least equivalent to the level that that CAN-TSO provides; or

    • (b) meets the requirements of CAN-TSO-C119a or a more recent version of it or other requirements that the Minister has accepted as providing a level of safety that is at least equivalent to the level that that CAN-TSO provides and is equipped with a Mode S transponder that meets the requirements of CAN-TSO-C112 or a more recent version of it.

  • (2) Subject to subsection (4), no air operator shall operate a turbine-powered aeroplane having an MCTOW greater than 15 000 kg (33,069 pounds) in airspace outside RVSM airspace unless the aeroplane is equipped with an operative ACAS that

    • (a) meets the requirements of CAN-TSO-C119a or a more recent version of it or other requirements that the Minister has accepted as providing a level of safety that is at least equivalent to the level that that CAN-TSO provides; and

    • (b) is equipped with a Mode S transponder that meets the requirements of CAN-TSO-C112 or a more recent version of it.

  • (3) Subject to subsection (4), no air operator shall operate an aeroplane referred to in subsection (1) or (2) in RVSM airspace unless the aeroplane is equipped with an operative ACAS that

    • (a) meets the requirements of CAN-TSO-C119b or a more recent version of it or other requirements that the Minister has accepted as providing a level of safety that is at least equivalent to the level that that CAN-TSO provides; and

    • (b) is equipped with a Mode S transponder that meets the requirements of CAN-TSO-C112 or a more recent version of it.

  • (4) The air operator may operate the aeroplane without its being equipped with an operative ACAS if

    • (a) where a minimum equipment list has not been approved by the Minister and subject to subsection 605.08(1), the operation takes place within the three days after the date of failure of the ACAS; or

    • (b) it is necessary for the pilot-in-command to deactivate, in the interests of aviation safety, the ACAS or any of its modes and the pilot-in-command does so in accordance with the aircraft flight manual, aircraft operating manual, flight manual supplement or minimum equipment list.

  • (5) This section does not apply in respect of aeroplanes manufactured on or before the day on which this section comes into force until two years after that day.

  • SOR/2007-133, s. 8
  • SOR/2009-280, ss. 37, 39 to 42
TAWS
  •  (1) Subject to subsection (3), no air operator shall operate an aeroplane that has a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of six to nine inclusive, unless the aeroplane is equipped with an operative TAWS that

    • (a) meets the requirements for Class A or Class B equipment set out in CAN-TSO-C151a or a more recent version of it;

    • (b) meets the altitude accuracy requirements set out in section 551.102 of Chapter 551 of the Airworthiness Manual; and

    • (c) has a terrain and airport database compatible with the area of operation.

  • (2) Subject to subsection (3), no air operator shall operate an aeroplane that has a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of ten or more, unless the aeroplane is equipped with an operative TAWS that

    • (a) meets the requirements for Class A equipment set out in CAN-TSO-C151a or a more recent version of it;

    • (b) meets the altitude accuracy requirements set out in section 551.102 of Chapter 551 of the Airworthiness Manual; and

    • (c) has a terrain and airport database compatible with the area of operation and a terrain awareness and situational display.

  • (3) The air operator may operate the aeroplane without its being equipped with an operative TAWS if

    • (a) the aeroplane is operated in day VFR only;

    • (b) in the event that a minimum equipment list has not been approved by the Minister and subject to subsection 605.08(1), the operation takes place within the three days after the day on which the failure of the TAWS occurs; or

    • (c) it is necessary for the pilot-in-command to deactivate, in the interests of aviation safety, the TAWS or any of its modes and the pilot-in-command does so in accordance with the aircraft flight manual, aircraft operating manual, flight manual supplement or minimum equipment list.

  • (4) This section does not apply in respect of aeroplanes manufactured on or before the day on which this section comes into force until the day that is two years after that day.

[704.72 to 704.82 reserved]

Division VI — Emergency Equipment

Hand-held Fire Extinguisher

 No air operator shall operate an aircraft with passengers on board unless at least one hand-held fire extinguisher is readily accessible for immediate use and is located in the passenger compartment.

Inspection Requirements

 No air operator shall operate an aircraft unless the emergency equipment carried on board under Division II of Subpart 2 of Part VI and this Division is inspected at the intervals recommended by the equipment manufacturer.

 
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