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Heavy-duty Vehicle and Engine Greenhouse Gas Emission Regulations (SOR/2013-24)

Regulations are current to 2024-05-28 and last amended on 2022-10-03. Previous Versions

Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards (continued)

General (continued)

Grouping into Fleets

Marginal note:Election applicable to all vehicles and engines

 If a company makes the election referred to in subsection 22(4), 26(7), 27(8) or 33(1) for a fleet of heavy-duty vehicles or heavy-duty engines that it manufactures or imports, that election applies to all the vehicles and engines of that fleet.

Class 2B and Class 3 Heavy-duty Vehicles

N2O and CH4 Emissions

Marginal note:Standards

  •  (1) For the 2014 model year and subsequent model years, every Class 2B and Class 3 heavy-duty vehicle and cab-complete vehicle that is not a vocational vehicle or incomplete vocational vehicle must, for the duration of its useful life, have N2O and CH4 emission values that do not exceed 0.05 g/mile.

  • Marginal note:Calculation

    (2) The N2O and CH4 emission values must be calculated in accordance with section 24.

  • Marginal note:Fleet calculation

    (3) A company that manufactures or imports vehicles referred to in subsection (1) whose N2O emission value or CH4 emission value exceeds the emission standard set out in that subsection must group those vehicles of a given model year into a fleet and, if applicable, subfleets in accordance with section 18 and must calculate the N2O or CH4 emission deficit, as the case may be, for that fleet or each of those subfleets, expressed in megagrams of CO2, using the formula

    ((A – B) × C × D × E) ÷ (1 000 000)

    where

    A
    is 0.05 g/mile;
    B
    is the N2O or CH4 family emission limit for the fleet or subfleet, as the case may be, expressed in g/mile;
    C
    is the number of vehicles in the fleet or subfleet, as the case may be;
    D
    is the vehicle’s useful life, expressed in miles; and
    E
    is the global warming potential and is equal to the following number of CO2 emission credits, expressed in megagrams of CO2, needed to offset a deficit of N2O or CH4:
    • (a) for each megagram of N2O, 298, and

    • (b) for each megagram of CH4,

      • (i) for the 2020 model year and earlier model years, 25, and

      • (ii) for the 2021 model year and subsequent model years, 34.

  • Marginal note:Separate calculation

    (3.1) For the purposes of subsection (3), if both the N2O emission value and the CH4 emission value exceed 0.05 g/mile, the N2O and CH4 emission deficits must be calculated separately.

  • Marginal note:Family emission limit

    (4) For the purposes of subsection (3), every vehicle within a fleet or subfleet must conform to the N2O or CH4 family emission limit for the fleet or subfleet, as the case may be.

  • Marginal note:Offsetting deficit

    (5) The deficit calculated under subsection (3) must be offset by using the CO2 emission credits obtained in accordance with sections 34 to 47 for the averaging set in which the fleet is included.

  • Marginal note:No credits

    (6) For greater certainty, the company must not obtain CO2 emission credits with respect to N2O and CH4 emissions for the purpose of participation in the CO2 emission credit system set out in sections 34 to 47.

  • SOR/2018-98, s. 22

CO2 Emissions

Marginal note:Average standard

  •  (1) For the 2014 model year and subsequent model years, a company must group all of its Class 2B and Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles and cab-complete vehicles — excluding those that are vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles — into a fleet based on model year in accordance with section 18 and must ensure that the fleet average CO2 emission value calculated in accordance with section 23 for that fleet does not exceed the applicable fleet average CO2 emission standard calculated in accordance with section 22 for the useful life of the vehicles of that fleet.

  • Marginal note:Offsetting deficit

    (2) When a company incurs a deficit based on the calculation referred to in subsection (1), it must offset the deficit by using the CO2 emission credits obtained in accordance with sections 34 to 47 for the averaging set in which the fleet is included.

  • SOR/2018-98, s. 23

Marginal note:Calculation of average standard

  •  (1) Subject to subsection (6), a company must calculate the fleet average CO2 emission standard for a given model year, expressed in grams of CO2 per mile and rounded to the nearest gram of CO2 per mile, for its fleet of Class 2B and Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles and cab-complete vehicles — excluding those that are vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles — using the formula

    (Σ (A × B)) ÷ C

    where

    A
    is the CO2 emission target value calculated for each vehicle subconfiguration in the fleet using the applicable formula set out in subsection (2) and rounded to the nearest gram of CO2 per mile;
    B
    is the number of vehicles of that vehicle subconfiguration in the fleet; and
    C
    is the number of vehicles in the fleet.
  • Marginal note:Vehicle subconfiguration

    (2) Subject to subsection (4), the CO2 emission target value for each vehicle subconfiguration in a fleet must be calculated using the applicable formula set out in one of the following paragraphs:

    • (a) for vehicles that are equipped with a spark-ignition engine, the formula set out in column 2 of the table to this paragraph for the model year set out in column 1, where WF is the work factor for each vehicle subconfiguration, calculated using the formula set out in subsection (3) and rounded to the nearest pound;

      TABLE

      Column 1Column 2
      ItemModel YearCO2 Emission Target (grams/mile)
      12014(0.0482 × WF) + 371
      22015(0.0479 × WF) + 369
      32016(0.0469 × WF) + 362
      42017(0.0460 × WF) + 354
      52018 to 2020(0.0440 × WF) + 339
      62021(0.0429 × WF) + 331
      72022(0.0418 × WF) + 322
      82023(0.0408 × WF) + 314
      92024(0.0398 × WF) + 306
      102025(0.0388 × WF) + 299
      112026(0.0378 × WF) + 291
      122027 and subsequent(0.0369 × WF) + 284
    • (b) for vehicles that are equipped with a compression-ignition engine or that operate without an internal combustion engine, the formula set out in column 2 of the table to this paragraph for the model year set out in column 1, where WF is the work factor for each vehicle subconfiguration, calculated using the formula set out in subsection (3) and rounded to the nearest pound.

      TABLE

      Column 1Column 2
      ItemModel YearCO2 Emission Target (grams/mile)
      12014(0.0478 × WF) + 368
      22015(0.0474 × WF) + 366
      32016(0.0460 × WF) + 354
      42017(0.0445 × WF) + 343
      52018 to 2020(0.0416 × WF) + 320
      62021(0.0406 × WF) + 312
      72022(0.0395 × WF) + 304
      82023(0.0386 × WF) + 297
      92024(0.0376 × WF) + 289
      102025(0.0367 × WF) + 282
      112026(0.0357 × WF) + 275
      122027 and subsequent(0.0348 × WF) + 268
  • Marginal note:Work factor

    (3) The work factor for each vehicle subconfiguration is calculated using the formula

    0.75 × (GVWR – curb weight + xwd) + 0.25 × (GCWR – GVWR)

    where

    GVWR
    is the GVWR as defined in subsection 1(1), expressed in pounds;
    curb weight
    is the curb weight as defined in subsection 1(1), expressed in pounds;
    xwd
    is 500 pounds if the vehicle has four-wheel drive or all-wheel drive and is 0 pounds for all other vehicles; and
    GCWR
    is the GCWR as defined in subsection 1(1), expressed in pounds.
  • Marginal note:Alternative target value calculation — 2016 to 2018 model years

    (4) For vehicles of the 2016 to 2018 model years, a company may, instead of calculating the CO2 emission target value in accordance with subsection (2), elect to calculate that target value for each of those model years using the formula set out in either of the following paragraphs, whichever applies:

    • (a) for vehicles that are equipped with a spark-ignition engine,

      (0.0456 × WF) + 352

      where

      WF
      is the work factor for each vehicle subconfiguration, calculated using the formula set out in subsection (3) and rounded to the nearest pound;
    • (b) for vehicles that are equipped with a compression-ignition engine or that operate without an internal combustion engine,

      (0.0440 × WF) + 339

      where

      WF
      is the work factor for each vehicle subconfiguration, calculated using the formula set out in subsection (3) and rounded to the nearest pound.
  • (5) [Repealed, SOR/2018-98, s. 24]

  • Marginal note:Grouping subconfigurations into configurations

    (6) A company may group vehicle subconfigurations of Class 2B and Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles and cab-complete vehicles — excluding those that are vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles — within a vehicle configuration for the purpose of calculating the fleet average CO2 emission standard if

    • (a) the vehicles of each subconfiguration have the same test weight, GVWR and GCWR, and the work factor and target value are calculated assuming a curb weight equal to two times the test weight minus the GVWR; or

    • (b) the lowest target value of a vehicle subconfiguration is used for all vehicle subconfigurations.

  • SOR/2018-98, ss. 24, 60

Marginal note:Calculation of average values

  •  (1) A company must calculate the fleet average CO2 emission value for a given model year, expressed in grams of CO2 per mile for its fleet of Class 2B and Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles and cab-complete vehicles — excluding those that are vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles — by using the formula

    (Σ (A × B)) ÷ C

    where

    A
    is the CO2 emission value for each vehicle configuration calculated in accordance with section 24 and taking into account subsection (2);
    B
    is the number of vehicles of that vehicle configuration in the fleet; and
    C
    is the number of vehicles in the fleet used for the purposes of subsection (2).
  • Marginal note:Representative data

    (2) When a company calculates the fleet average CO2 emission value in accordance with this section, it must use the data and values from one or more vehicle configurations that represent at least 90% of its number of vehicles for the fleet.

  • SOR/2018-98, s. 60

Test Methods and Calculations

Marginal note:General

  •  (1) The N2O, CH4 and CO2 emission values for Class 2B and Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles and cab-complete vehicles — excluding those that are vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles and the vehicles referred to in subsection (2) — must be determined in accordance with subsection (3) or (4), as the case may be, and

    • (a) using

      • (i) the test procedures, fuels and calculation methods set out for the FTP-based city test and the HFET-based highway test, and

      • (ii) the adjusted loaded vehicle weight and the deterioration factors determined using the durability procedures and method prescribed in section 1823(m) of Title 40, chapter I, subchapter C, part 86, subpart S, of the CFR; and

    • (b) taking into account

      • (i) sections 1819(d)(4) and (5) and 1819(k)(6) of Title 40, chapter I, subchapter C, part 86, subpart S, of the CFR, and

      • (ii) the altitude testing conditions set out in sections 1819(a)(5) and 1865(h)(3) of Title 40, chapter I, subchapter C, part 86, subpart S, of the CFR.

  • Marginal note:Electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles

    (2) In the case of Class 2B and Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles and cab-complete vehicles — excluding those that are vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles — that are electric vehicles or fuel cell vehicles, the N2O, CH4 and CO2 emission values are considered to be 0 grams per mile.

  • Marginal note:Multi-fuel, dual fuel or flexible fuel

    (3) In the case of Class 2B or Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles and cab-complete vehicles — excluding those that are vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles — that are designed to operate on two or more different fuel types, either separately or simultaneously, the N2O, CH4 and CO2 emission values for a given vehicle or vehicle configuration, as the case may be, must be determined using

    • (a) in the case of N2O and CH4 emissions, the highest of the following averages:

      • (i) the arithmetic average of the FTP-based city test and HFET-based highway test emission values, determined in accordance with this section, for that vehicle configuration, weighted 0.55 and 0.45 respectively, tested on gasoline or diesel fuel, and

      • (ii) the arithmetic average of the FTP-based city test and HFET-based highway test emission values, determined in accordance with this section, for that vehicle configuration, weighted 0.55 and 0.45 respectively, tested on the alternative fuel; and

    • (b) in the case of CO2 emissions, the formula

      (F × A) + ((1 – F) × B)

      where

      F
      is 0.00 unless the company provides the Minister with evidence demonstrating that an alternative value determined for F is more representative for that vehicle configuration,
      A
      is the arithmetic average of the FTP-based city test and HFET-based highway test emission values, determined in accordance with this section, for that vehicle configuration, weighted 0.55 and 0.45 respectively, tested on the alternative fuel, and
      B
      is the arithmetic average of the FTP-based city test and HFET-based highway test emission values, determined in accordance with this section, for that vehicle configuration, weighted 0.55 and 0.45 respectively, tested on gasoline or diesel fuel.
  • Marginal note:Other cases

    (4) In the case of other Class 2B and Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles and cab-complete vehicles — excluding those that are vocational vehicles or incomplete vocational vehicles — the N2O, CH4 and CO2 emission values must be determined as follows:

    • (a) in the case of N2O and CH4 emissions, by calculating the arithmetic average of the FTP-based city test and HFET-based highway test emission values, weighted 0.55 and 0.45 respectively; and

    • (b) in the case of CO2 emissions,

      • (i) by making the calculation set out in paragraph (a), or

      • (ii) by calculating the CO2 emission rate in accordance with section 1819(g) of Title 40, chapter I, subchapter C, part 86, subpart S, of the CFR.

  • SOR/2018-98, ss. 25, 60
 

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