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Nuclear Safety and Control Act (S.C. 1997, c. 9)

Act current to 2022-07-25 and last amended on 2017-01-01. Previous Versions

Offences and Punishment (continued)

Marginal note:Defence

 A person shall not be found to have contravened any provision of this Act, other than section 50, if it is established that the person exercised all due diligence to prevent its commission.

Marginal note:Continuing offence

 Where an offence under this Act is committed or continued on more than one day, it shall be deemed to be a separate offence for each day on which it is committed or continued.

Marginal note:Limitation

 Proceedings by way of summary conviction in respect of an offence under this Act may be instituted not later than two years after the time when the subject-matter of the proceedings arose or the Commission became aware of the subject-matter of the proceedings.

 [Repealed, 2001, c. 26, s. 314]

Marginal note:Evidence by certificate

  •  (1) Subject to this section, a certificate purporting to be signed by an analyst, stating that the analyst has analysed or tested a substance or product and stating the result of the analysis or test, or a copy or extract of a certificate certified as such by an inspector or designated officer is admissible in evidence in any prosecution for an offence under this Act without proof of the signature or official character of the analyst, inspector or designated officer and is proof of the statements contained in the certificate.

  • Marginal note:Attendance

    (2) Any party against whom a certificate, copy or extract referred to in subsection (1) is produced may, with leave of the court, require the attendance of the analyst, inspector or designated officer, as the case may be, for the purposes of cross-examination.

  • Marginal note:Notice

    (3) No certificate, copy or extract shall be received in evidence pursuant to subsection (1) unless the party intending to produce it has given to the party against whom it is intended to be produced reasonable notice of that intention, together with a copy of the certificate.

Marginal note:Offence outside Canada

 Every licensee who resides or carries on business in Canada and commits, outside Canada, an act or omission that would, if committed in Canada, be an offence under paragraph 48(c) or under paragraph 48(i) in relation to its licence, is deemed to have committed that act or omission in Canada.

Marginal note:Trial of offence

 A prosecution for an offence under this Act may be instituted, heard and determined in the place where the offence was committed, the subject-matter of the prosecution arose, the accused is resident or the accused is carrying on business.

Marginal note:Absolute or conditional discharge

  •  (1) Where an offender has pleaded guilty to or been found guilty of an offence under this Act, the court may, instead of convicting the offender, order that the offender be discharged absolutely or on conditions that have any or all of the effects described in paragraphs 60(1)(a) to (j).

  • Marginal note:Application by prosecutor

    (2) Where an offender contravenes an order made under subsection (1) or is convicted of any other offence under this Act that is committed after the order under subsection (1) was made, the prosecutor may apply to the court to revoke the discharge, convict the offender of the offence to which the discharge relates and impose any sentence that could have been imposed if the offender had been convicted at the time the order was made.

Marginal note:Suspended sentence

  •  (1) Where an offender is convicted of an offence under this Act, the court may suspend the passing of sentence and may order that the accused comply with any condition having any or all of the effects described in paragraphs 60(1)(a) to (j).

  • Marginal note:Application by prosecutor

    (2) Where the offender contravenes an order made under subsection (1) or is convicted of any other offence under this Act that is committed after the order under subsection (1) was made, the prosecutor may apply to the court to impose any sentence that could have been imposed if the passing of sentence had not been suspended.

Marginal note:Orders of court

  •  (1) Where an offender has been convicted of an offence under this Act, in addition to any other punishment that may be imposed under this Act, the court may make an order having any or all of the following effects:

    • (a) prohibiting the offender from committing any act or engaging in any activity that may, in the opinion of the court, result in the continuation or repetition of the offence;

    • (b) directing the offender to take any measure that the court considers appropriate to protect the environment or the health or safety of persons from harm resulting from the act or omission that constituted the offence, or to remedy such harm;

    • (c) directing the offender to publish, in the prescribed manner and at the offender’s own expense, the facts relating to the conviction;

    • (d) directing the offender to notify, in the prescribed manner and at the offender’s own expense, any person who is affected by the offender’s conduct, of the facts relating to the conviction;

    • (e) directing the offender to post a bond or pay an amount of money into court that the court considers appropriate to ensure compliance with any order, prohibition, direction or requirement provided for in this subsection;

    • (f) directing the offender to submit to the Commission, on application to the court by the Commission made within three years after the date of conviction, such information with respect to the activities of the offender as the court considers appropriate in the circumstances;

    • (g) directing the offender to compensate the Commission, in whole or in part, for the cost of any remedial or preventive measure taken by or caused to be taken on behalf of the Commission as a result of the act or omission that constituted the offence;

    • (h) directing the offender to perform community service, subject to such reasonable conditions as may be imposed by the court on the recommendation of the Commission;

    • (i) directing the offender to pay an amount for the purposes of conducting research into the use and disposal of any nuclear substance, prescribed equipment or nuclear facility in respect of which the offence was committed; or

    • (j) requiring the offender to comply with such other conditions as the court considers appropriate in the circumstances for securing the offender’s good conduct and for preventing the offender from repeating the same offence or committing any other offence under this Act.

  • Marginal note:Coming into force and duration of order or condition

    (2) An order made under subsection (1), 58(1) or 59(1) shall come into force on the day on which the order is made or on such other day as the court may determine and shall not continue in force for more than three years after that day.

Marginal note:Additional fine

 Where a person has been convicted of an offence under this Act and the court is satisfied that, as a result of the commission of the offence, monetary benefits accrued to the person, the court may order the person to pay, notwithstanding the maximum amount of any fine that may otherwise be imposed under this Act, an additional fine in an amount equal to the court’s estimation of the amount of the monetary benefits.

Marginal note:Compensation for loss of property

  •  (1) Where an offender has been convicted of an offence under this Act, in addition to any sentence imposed, the court may, at the time sentence is imposed and on the application of any person who has suffered loss of, or damage to, property, as a result of the commission of the offence, order the offender to pay to that person, within such period as the court considers reasonable, an amount of compensation for the loss or damage.

  • Marginal note:Enforcement

    (2) Where an amount that is ordered to be paid under subsection (1) is not paid within the period specified, the applicant may, by filing the order in the superior court of the province in which the trial was held, enter the amount ordered to be paid as a judgment, and such a judgment is enforceable against the offender in the same manner as if it were a judgment rendered against the offender in that court in civil proceedings.

Marginal note:Variation of sanctions

  •  (1) Where a court has made an order under section 58, 59 or 60 in relation to an offender, the court may, on application by the offender or the Attorney General of Canada, require the offender to appear before the court and, after hearing the offender and the Attorney General, may vary the order in one or any combination of the following ways that is applicable and, in the opinion of the court, is rendered desirable by a change in the circumstances of the offender since the order was made, namely,

    • (a) make changes in the order or the conditions specified in the order or extend the period for which the order is to remain in force for such period, not exceeding one year, as the court considers desirable; or

    • (b) decrease the period for which the order is to remain in force or relieve the offender, either absolutely or partially or for such period as the court considers desirable, of compliance with any condition that is specified in the order.

  • Marginal note:Notice

    (2) Before varying an order under subsection (1), the court may direct that notice be given to any persons that the court considers to be interested in the order and may hear any or all of those persons.

  • Marginal note:Subsequent applications with leave

    (3) Where an application made under subsection (1) in respect of an offender has been heard by a court, no other application may be made with respect to the order except with leave of the court.

Marginal note:Application of Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act

 Nothing in section 58, 59, 60, 62 or 63 shall be construed as restricting

  • 1997, c. 9, s. 64
  • 2015, c. 4, s. 125

Marginal note:Publication

  •  (1) Where an offender is required by an order made under section 58, 59 or 60 to comply with a condition having the effect described in paragraph 60(1)(c) and the offender fails to comply with the condition, the Commission may publish the facts in the manner referred to in that paragraph and may recover the costs of publication from the offender.

  • Marginal note:Debt due to Her Majesty

    (2) Where the Commission incurs publication costs under subsection (1) or an offender is required by an order made under section 58, 59 or 60 to comply with a condition having the effect described in paragraph 60(1)(g), the costs and any interest thereon constitute a debt due to Her Majesty in right of Canada and may be recovered as such in any court of competent jurisdiction or in any manner provided for by law.

Administrative Monetary Penalties

Commission’s Powers

Marginal note:Powers

 The Commission may

  • (a) establish the form of notices of violation;

  • (b) designate inspectors, or designated officers, who are authorized to issue notices of violation;

  • (c) establish, in respect of each violation, a short-form description to be used in notices of violation; and

  • (d) designate designated officers to conduct reviews under section 65.13.

  • 2012, c. 19, s. 130

Violations

Marginal note:Commission of violation

  •  (1) Every person who contravenes or fails to comply with a provision, order, decision, term or condition designated under paragraph 44(1)(u.1) commits a violation and is liable to an administrative monetary penalty of an amount to be determined in accordance with the regulations.

  • Marginal note:Purpose of penalty

    (2) The purpose of the penalty is to promote compliance with this Act and not to punish.

  • 2012, c. 19, s. 130

Marginal note:Liability of directors, officers, etc.

 If a corporation commits a violation, any director, officer, agent or mandatary of the corporation who directed, authorized, assented to, acquiesced in or participated in the commission of the violation is a party to the violation and is liable to an administrative monetary penalty of an amount to be determined in accordance with the regulations, whether or not the corporation has been proceeded against in accordance with this Act.

  • 2012, c. 19, s. 130

Marginal note:Proof of violation

 In any proceedings under this Act against a person in relation to a violation, it is sufficient proof of the violation to establish that it was committed by an employee, or agent or mandatary, of the person whether or not the employee, agent or mandatary is identified or proceeded against in accordance with this Act.

  • 2012, c. 19, s. 130

Marginal note:Issuance and service of notice of violation

  •  (1) If a person designated under paragraph 65.01(b) believes on reasonable grounds that a person has committed a violation, the designated person may issue a notice of violation and cause it to be served on the person.

  • Marginal note:Contents

    (2) The notice of violation must

    • (a) name the person that is believed to have committed the violation;

    • (b) set out the relevant facts surrounding the violation;

    • (c) set out the amount of the penalty for the violation;

    • (d) inform the person of their right to request a review with respect to the violation or the amount of the penalty, and of the prescribed period within which that right must be exercised;

    • (e) inform the person of the manner of paying the penalty set out in the notice; and

    • (f) inform the person that, if they do not pay the penalty or exercise their right referred to in paragraph (d), they will be considered to have committed the violation and that they are liable to the penalty set out in the notice.

  • 2012, c. 19, s. 130

Rules About Violations

Marginal note:Certain defences not available

  •  (1) A person named in a notice of violation does not have a defence by reason that the person

    • (a) exercised due diligence to prevent the commission of the violation; or

    • (b) reasonably and honestly believed in the existence of facts that, if true, would exonerate the person.

  • Marginal note:Common law principles

    (2) Every rule and principle of the common law that renders any circumstance a justification or excuse in relation to a charge for an offence under this Act applies in respect of a violation to the extent that it is not inconsistent with this Act.

  • 2012, c. 19, s. 130

Marginal note:Continuing violation

 A violation that is committed or continued on more than one day constitutes a separate violation for each day on which it is committed or continued.

  • 2012, c. 19, s. 130

Marginal note:Violation or offence

  •  (1) Proceeding with any act or omission as a violation under this Act precludes proceeding with it as an offence under this Act, and proceeding with it as an offence under this Act precludes proceeding with it as a violation under this Act.

  • Marginal note:Violations not offences

    (2) For greater certainty, a violation is not an offence and, accordingly, section 126 of the Criminal Code does not apply in respect of a violation.

  • 2012, c. 19, s. 130
 
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