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Canada Labour Code (R.S.C., 1985, c. L-2)

Full Document:  

Act current to 2022-11-16 and last amended on 2022-05-08. Previous Versions

PART IIOccupational Health and Safety (continued)

Internal Complaint Resolution Process (continued)

Marginal note:Employees on shift during work stoppage

  •  (1) Unless otherwise provided in a collective agreement or other agreement, employees who are affected by a stoppage of work arising from the application of section 127.1, 128 or 129 or subsection 145(2) are deemed, for the purpose of calculating wages and benefits, to be at work during the stoppage until work resumes or until the end of the scheduled work period or shift, whichever period is shorter.

  • Marginal note:Employees on next shift

    (2) Unless otherwise provided in a collective agreement or other agreement, employees who are due to work on a scheduled work period or shift after a shift during which there has been a stoppage of work arising from the application of section 127.1, 128 or 129 or subsection 145(2) are deemed, for the purpose of calculating wages and benefits, to be at work during their work period or shift, unless they have been given at least one hour’s notice not to attend work.

  • Marginal note:Alternative work

    (3) An employer may assign reasonable alternative work to employees who are deemed under subsection (1) or (2) to be at work.

  • Marginal note:Repayment

    (4) Unless otherwise provided in a collective agreement or other agreement, employees who are paid wages or benefits under subsection (1) or (2) may be required by the employer to repay those wages and benefits if it is determined, after all avenues of redress have been exhausted by the employee who exercised rights under section 128 or 129, that the employee exercised those rights knowing that no circumstances existed that would warrant it.

  • 2000, c. 20, s. 10

Marginal note:Head’s investigation

  •  (1) If the Head is informed of the employer’s decision and the continued refusal under subsection 128(16), the Head shall investigate the matter unless the Head is of the opinion that

    • (a) the matter is one that could more appropriately be dealt with, initially or completely, by means of a procedure provided for under Part I or III or under another Act of Parliament;

    • (b) the matter is trivial, frivolous or vexatious; or

    • (c) the continued refusal by the employee under 128(15) is in bad faith.

  • Marginal note:Notices of decision not to investigate

    (1.1) If the Head does not proceed with an investigation, the Head shall inform the employer and the employee in writing, as soon as feasible, of that decision. The employer shall then inform in writing, as the case may be, the members of the work place committee who were designated under subsection 128(10) or the health and safety representative and the person who is designated by the employer under that subsection of the Head’s decision.

  • Marginal note:Return to work

    (1.2) On being informed of the Head’s decision not to proceed with an investigation, the employee is no longer entitled to continue their refusal under subsection 128(15).

  • Marginal note:Refusal of work during investigation

    (1.3) If the Head proceeds with an investigation, the employee may continue to refuse, for the duration of the investigation, to use or operate the machine or thing, to work in the place or to perform the activity that may constitute a danger.

  • Marginal note:Persons present during the investigation

    (1.4) If the Head proceeds with an investigation, the Head may do so in the presence of the employer, the employee and one other person who is

    • (a) an employee member of the work place committee;

    • (b) the health and safety representative; or

    • (c) if a person mentioned in paragraph (a) or (b) is not available, another employee from the work place who is designated by the employee.

  • Marginal note:Employees’ representative if more than one employee

    (2) If the investigation involves more than one employee, those employees may designate one employee from among themselves to be present at the investigation.

  • Marginal note:Absence of any person

    (3) The Head may proceed with an investigation in the absence of any person mentioned in subsection (1.4) or (2) if that person chooses not to be present.

  • Marginal note:Precedent

    (3.1) During the Head’s investigation, the Head shall verify if there are previous or ongoing investigations in relation to the same employer that involve substantially the same issues and may

    • (a) if there was a previous investigation, rely on the findings of that investigation to decide whether a danger exists; or

    • (b) if there is an ongoing investigation, combine that investigation with the investigation the Head is conducting and issue a single decision.

  • Marginal note:Decision of Head

    (4) The Head shall, on completion of an investigation made under subsection (1), make one of the decisions referred to in paragraphs 128(13)(a) to (c) and shall immediately give written notification of the decision to the employer and the employee.

  • Marginal note:Continuation of work

    (5) If the employee has exercised their right under subsection (1.3), the employer may, during the investigation and until the Head has issued a decision, require that the employee concerned remain at a safe location near the place in respect of which the investigation is being made or assign the employee reasonable alternative work, and shall not assign any other employee to use or operate the machine or thing, work in that place or perform the activity referred to in subsection (1) unless

    • (a) the other employee is qualified for the work;

    • (b) the other employee has been advised of the refusal of the employee concerned and of the reasons for the refusal; and

    • (c) the employer is satisfied on reasonable grounds that the other employee will not be put in danger.

  • Marginal note:Directions by Head

    (6) If the Head makes a decision referred to in paragraph 128(13)(a), the Head shall issue the directions under subsection 145(2) that the Head considers appropriate, and an employee may continue to refuse to use or operate the machine or thing, work in that place or perform that activity until the directions are complied with or until they are varied or rescinded under this Part.

  • Marginal note:Appeal

    (7) If the Head makes a decision referred to in paragraph 128(13)(b) or (c), the employee is not entitled under section 128 or this section to continue to refuse to use or operate the machine or thing, work in that place or perform that activity, but the employee, or a person designated by the employee for the purpose, may appeal the decision, in writing, to the Board within 10 days after receiving notice of the decision.

Marginal note:When collective agreement exists

 The Head may, on the joint application of the parties to a collective agreement, if the Head is satisfied that the agreement contains provisions that are at least as effective as those under sections 128 and 129 in protecting the employees to whom the agreement relates from danger to their health or safety, exclude the employees from the application of those sections for the period during which the agreement remains in force.

  • R.S., 1985, c. L-2, s. 130
  • R.S., 1985, c. 9 (1st Supp.), s. 4
  • 2000, c. 20, s. 10
  • 2018, c. 27, s. 543

Marginal note:Compensation under other laws not precluded

 The fact that an employer or employee has complied with or failed to comply with any of the provisions of this Part may not be construed as affecting any right of an employee to compensation under any statute relating to compensation for employment injury or illness, or as affecting any liability or obligation of any employer or employee under any such statute.

  • R.S., 1985, c. L-2, s. 131
  • R.S., 1985, c. 9 (1st Supp.), s. 4
  • 2000, c. 20, s. 10

Pregnant and Nursing Employees

Marginal note:Cease to perform job

  •  (1) In addition to the rights conferred by section 128 and subject to this section, an employee who is pregnant or nursing may cease to perform her job if she believes that, by reason of the pregnancy or nursing, continuing any of her current job functions may pose a risk to her health or to that of the foetus or child. On being informed of the cessation, the employer, with the consent of the employee, shall notify the work place committee or the health and safety representative.

  • Marginal note:Consult health care practitioner

    (2) The employee must consult with a health care practitioner, as defined in section 166, of her choice as soon as possible to establish whether continuing any of her current job functions poses a risk to her health or to that of the foetus or child.

  • Marginal note:Provision no longer applicable

    (3) Without prejudice to any other right conferred by this Act, by a collective agreement or other agreement or by any terms and conditions of employment, once the health care practitioner has established whether there is a risk as described in subsection (1), the employee may no longer cease to perform her job under subsection (1).

  • Marginal note:Employer may reassign

    (4) For the period during which the employee does not perform her job under subsection (1), the employer may, in consultation with the employee, reassign her to another job that would not pose a risk to her health or to that of the foetus or child.

  • Marginal note:Status of employee

    (5) The employee, whether or not she has been reassigned to another job, is deemed to continue to hold the job that she held at the time she ceased to perform her job functions and shall continue to receive the wages and benefits that are attached to that job for the period during which she does not perform the job.

  • R.S., 1985, c. L-2, s. 132
  • R.S., 1985, c. 9 (1st Supp.), s. 4
  • 2000, c. 20, s. 10
  • 2018, c. 27, s. 441

Complaints when Action against Employees

Marginal note:Complaint to Board

  •  (1) An employee, or a person designated by the employee for the purpose, who alleges that an employer has taken action against the employee in contravention of section 147 may, subject to subsection (3), make a complaint in writing to the Board of the alleged contravention.

  • Marginal note:Time for making complaint

    (2) The complaint shall be made to the Board not later than ninety days after the date on which the complainant knew, or in the Board’s opinion ought to have known, of the action or circumstances giving rise to the complaint.

  • Marginal note:Restriction

    (3) A complaint in respect of the exercise of a right under section 128 or 129 may not be made unless the employee has complied with subsection 128(6) or the Head has received the reports referred to in subsection 128(16), as the case may be, in relation to the matter that is the subject-matter of the complaint.

  • Marginal note:Exclusion of arbitration

    (4) Notwithstanding any law or agreement to the contrary, a complaint made under this section may not be referred by an employee to arbitration or adjudication.

  • Marginal note:Duty and power of Board

    (5) On receipt of a complaint made under this section, the Board may assist the parties to the complaint to settle the complaint and shall, if it decides not to so assist the parties or the complaint is not settled within a period considered by the Board to be reasonable in the circumstances, hear and determine the complaint.

  • Marginal note:Burden of proof

    (6) A complaint made under this section in respect of the exercise of a right under section 128 or 129 is itself evidence that the contravention actually occurred and, if a party to the complaint proceedings alleges that the contravention did not occur, the burden of proof is on that party.

  • R.S., 1985, c. L-2, s. 133
  • R.S., 1985, c. 9 (1st Supp.), s. 4
  • 2000, c. 20, s. 10
  • 2013, c. 40, s. 183
  • 2018, c. 27, s. 544

Marginal note:Board orders

  •  (1) If, under subsection 133(5), the Board determines that an employer has contravened section 147, the Board may, by order, require the employer to cease contravening that section and may, if applicable, by order, require the employer to

    • (a) permit any employee who has been affected by the contravention to return to the duties of their employment;

    • (b) reinstate any former employee affected by the contravention;

    • (c) pay to any employee or former employee affected by the contravention compensation not exceeding the sum that, in the Board’s opinion, is equivalent to the remuneration that would, but for the contravention, have been paid by the employer to the employee or former employee; and

    • (d) rescind any disciplinary action taken in respect of, and pay compensation to any employee affected by, the contravention, not exceeding the sum that, in the Board’s opinion, is equivalent to any financial or other penalty imposed on the employee by the employer.

  • Marginal note:Enforcement of orders

    (2) Any person affected by an order of the Board under subsection (1), or the Head on the request of such a person, may, after 14 days from the day on which the order is made, or from the day provided in the order for compliance, whichever is later, file in the Federal Court a copy of the order, exclusive of reasons.

  • Marginal note:Registration

    (3) On filing in the Federal Court under subsection (2), an order of the Board shall be registered in the Court and, when registered, has the same force and effect, and all proceedings may be taken in respect of it, as if the order were a judgment obtained in that Court.

Policy Health and Safety Committees

Marginal note:Establishment mandatory

  •  (1) For the purposes of addressing health and safety matters that apply to the work, undertaking or business of an employer, every employer who normally employs directly three hundred or more employees shall establish a policy health and safety committee and, subject to section 135.1, select and appoint its members.

  • Marginal note:Exception

    (2) An employer who normally employs directly more than twenty but fewer than three hundred employees may also establish a policy committee.

  • Marginal note:More than one committee

    (3) An employer may establish more than one policy committee with the agreement of

    • (a) the trade union, if any, representing the employees; and

    • (b) the employees, in the case of employees not represented by a trade union.

  • Marginal note:Duties of policy committee

    (4) A policy committee

    • (a) shall participate in the development of health and safety policies and programs;

    • (b) shall consider and expeditiously dispose of matters concerning health and safety raised by members of the committee or referred to it by a work place committee or a health and safety representative;

    • (c) shall participate in the development and monitoring of a program for the prevention of hazards in the work place that also provides for the education of employees in health and safety matters;

    • (d) shall participate to the extent that it considers necessary in inquiries, investigations, studies and inspections pertaining to occupational health and safety;

    • (e) shall participate in the development and monitoring of a program for the provision of personal protective equipment, clothing, devices or materials;

    • (f) shall cooperate with the Head;

    • (g) shall monitor data on work accidents, injuries and health hazards; and

    • (h) shall participate in the planning of the implementation and in the implementation of changes that might affect occupational health and safety, including work processes and procedures.

  • Marginal note:Investigation — harassment and violence

    (4.1) Despite paragraph (4)(d), a policy committee shall not participate in an investigation, other than an investigation under section 128 or 129, relating to an occurrence of harassment and violence in the work place.

  • Marginal note:Information

    (5) A policy committee may request from an employer any information that the committee considers necessary to identify existing or potential hazards with respect to materials, processes, equipment or activities in any of the employer’s work places.

  • Marginal note:Access

    (6) A policy committee shall have full access to all of the government and employer reports, studies and tests relating to the health and safety of employees in the work place, or to the parts of those reports, studies and tests that relate to the health and safety of employees, but shall not have access to the medical records of any person except with the person’s consent.

  • Marginal note:Meetings of committee

    (7) A policy committee shall meet during regular working hours at least quarterly and, if other meetings are required as a result of an emergency or other special circumstances, the committee shall meet as required during regular working hours or outside those hours.

 
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