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Fisheries Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. F-14)

Full Document:  

Act current to 2020-11-17 and last amended on 2019-08-28. Previous Versions

Fish and Fish Habitat Protection and Pollution Prevention (continued)

Marginal note:Search

  •  (1) A fishery officer or inspector who has a warrant issued under subsection (2) in which the officer or inspector is named may enter any place or premises, including a vehicle or vessel — other than a private dwelling-place or any part of any place or premises, including a vehicle or vessel, used as a permanent or temporary private dwelling-place — in which the officer or inspector has reasonable grounds to believe that an offence under subsection 40(1), (2) or (3) is being or has been committed and search the place, premises, vehicle or vessel for evidence of the offence.

  • Marginal note:Authority to issue warrant

    (2) On ex parte application, a justice of the peace may issue a warrant authorizing any fishery officer or inspector named in the warrant to enter and search any place or premises referred to in subsection (1), subject to any conditions that are specified in the warrant, if the justice is satisfied by information on oath that there are reasonable grounds to believe that there is in the place or premises

    • (a) anything on or in respect of which an offence under subsection 40(1), (2) or (3) is being or has been committed; or

    • (b) anything that there are reasonable grounds to believe will afford evidence with respect to the commission of an offence under subsection 40(1), (2) or (3).

  • Marginal note:Use of force

    (3) In executing a warrant issued under subsection (2), an inspector named in the warrant may use force only if they are accompanied by a peace officer and the use of force has been specifically authorized in the warrant.

  • Marginal note:When warrant not necessary

    (4) A fishery officer or inspector may exercise the powers of entry and search referred to in subsection (1) without a warrant issued under subsection (2) if the conditions for obtaining the warrant exist but by reason of exigent circumstances it would not be practical to obtain the warrant.

  • Marginal note:Exigent circumstances

    (5) For the purposes of subsection (4), exigent circumstances include circumstances in which the delay necessary to obtain a warrant would result in danger to human life or safety or the loss or destruction of evidence.

  • R.S., 1985, c. F-14, s. 39
  • 1991, c. 1, s. 9
  • 2012, c. 19, s. 146

Marginal note:Exercise of powers

 Every power that may be exercised in Canada by an inspector under this Act may be exercised anywhere this Act applies.

  • 2019, c. 14, s. 26

Marginal note:Offence and punishment

  •  (1) Every person who contravenes subsection 34.4(1) or 35(1) is guilty of an offence and liable

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) in the case of an individual,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $15,000 and not more than $1,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $30,000 and not more than $2,000,000, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years, or to both,

      • (ii) in the case of a person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subparagraph (iii),

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $500,000 and not more than $6,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $1,000,000 and not more than $12,000,000, and

      • (iii) in the case of a corporation that the court has determined to be a small revenue corporation,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $75,000 and not more than $4,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $150,000 and not more than $8,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) in the case of an individual,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $5,000 and not more than $300,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $10,000 and not more than $600,000, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months, or to both,

      • (ii) in the case of a person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subparagraph (iii),

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $100,000 and not more than $4,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $200,000 and not more than $8,000,000, and

      • (iii) in the case of a corporation that the court has determined to be a small revenue corporation,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $25,000 and not more than $2,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $50,000 and not more than $4,000,000.

  • Marginal note:Offence and punishment

    (2) Every person who contravenes subsection 36(1) or (3) is guilty of an offence and liable

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) in the case of an individual,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $15,000 and not more than $1,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $30,000 and not more than $2,000,000, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years, or to both,

      • (ii) in the case of a person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subparagraph (iii),

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $500,000 and not more than $6,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $1,000,000 and not more than $12,000,000, and

      • (iii) in the case of a corporation that the court has determined to be a small revenue corporation,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $75,000 and not more than $4,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $150,000 and not more than $8,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) in the case of an individual,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $5,000 and not more than $300,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $10,000 and not more than $600,000, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months, or to both,

      • (ii) in the case of a person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subparagraph (iii),

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $100,000 and not more than $4,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $200,000 and not more than $8,000,000, and

      • (iii) in the case of a corporation that the court has determined to be a small revenue corporation,

        • (A) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $25,000 and not more than $2,000,000, and

        • (B) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $50,000 and not more than $4,000,000.

  • Marginal note:Small revenue corporation status

    (2.1) For the purpose of subsections (1) and (2), a court may determine a corporation to be a small revenue corporation if the court is satisfied that the corporation’s gross revenues for the 12 months immediately before the day on which the subject matter of the proceedings arose — or, if it arose on more than one day, for the 12 months immediately before the first day on which the subject matter of the proceedings arose — were not more than $5,000,000.

  • Marginal note:Relief from minimum fine

    (2.2) The court may impose a fine that is less than the minimum amount provided for in subsection (1) or (2) if it is satisfied, on the basis of evidence submitted to the court, that the minimum fine would cause undue financial hardship. The court shall provide reasons if it imposes a fine that is less than the minimum amount provided for in either of those subsections.

  • Marginal note:Other offences

    (3) Every person who

    • (a) in carrying on a work, undertaking or activity, fails to comply with a prescribed condition referred to in paragraph 34.4(2)(a) or 35(2)(a), with a condition set out in an authorization or a permit, as the case may be, issued under paragraph 34.4(2)(b) or (c) or 35(2)(b) or (c) or subsection 35.1(3) or 35.2(7), or with a condition imposed by regulations made under subsection 36(5) or (5.2),

    • (a.1) fails to provide any document or other information as requested by the Minister under subsection 37(1) within a reasonable time after the request is made,

    • (a.2) fails to provide any document or other information required to be provided under subsection 35.2(3) within the prescribed period,

    • (a.3) fails to provide any additional information that is required to be provided under subsection 35.2(4) within the time and in the manner that the Minister specifies,

    • (b) fails to provide or submit any material, information or report that is to be provided or submitted under regulations made pursuant to subsection 37(3),

    • (c) fails to provide notification that he or she is required to provide under subsection 38 (4), (4.1) or (5),

    • (d) carries on any work, undertaking or activity described in subsection 37(1)

      • (i) otherwise than in accordance with any document and other information relating to the work, undertaking or activity that they provide to the Minister under that subsection,

      • (ii) otherwise than in accordance with any such document and other information as required to be modified by any order of the Minister under paragraph 37(2)(a), or

      • (iii) contrary to any order made by the Minister under subsection 37(2),

    • (d.1) carries on any work, undertaking or activity described in subsection 35.2(3) otherwise than in accordance with any document and other information relating to the work, undertaking or activity that they provide to the Minister under that subsection or subsection 35.2(4),

    • (e) fails to take any reasonable measures that he or she is required to take under subsection 38(6) or fails to take those measures in the required manner,

    • (f) fails to provide a report that he or she is required to provide under subsection 38(7),

    • (g) fails to comply with the whole or any part of a direction of an inspector or a fishery officer under subsection 38(7.1),

    • (h) fails to comply with a request of the Minister made under subsection 34.3(1), an order of the Minister made under subsection 34.3(2) or (3) or a provision of a regulation made under subsection 34.3(7),

    • (i) fails to comply with all or any part of a direction of a fishery officer or fishery guardian with respect to the application of any regulations made under paragraph 43(1)(o),

    • (j) carries on any work, undertaking or activity that is a part of a designated project in contravention of subsection 35.1(4), or

    • (k) carries on, in contravention of subsection 35.2(1), any work, undertaking or activity prescribed under paragraph 35.2(10)(a),

    is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction and liable, for a first offence, to a fine not exceeding two hundred thousand dollars and, for any subsequent offence, to a fine not exceeding two hundred thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months, or to both.

  • (4) [Repealed, 1991, c. 1, s. 10]

  • Marginal note:Matters of proof

    (5) For the purpose of any proceedings for an offence under any of subsections (1), (2) and (3),

    • (a) the death of fish takes place whether or not any act or omission resulting in the death is intentional;

    • (a.1) a harmful alteration, disruption or destruction of fish habitat takes place whether or not an act or omission resulting in the alteration, disruption or destruction is intentional;

    • (a.2) a deposit as defined in subsection 34(1) takes place whether or not any act or omission resulting in the deposit is intentional; and

    • (b) no water is water frequented by fish, as defined in subsection 34(1), where proof is made that at all times material to the proceedings the water is not, has not been and is not likely to be frequented in fact by fish.

  • Marginal note:Application of fines

    (6) All fines received by the Receiver General in respect of the commission of an offence under this section are to be credited to the Environmental Damages Fund, an account in the accounts of Canada, and used for purposes related to the conservation and protection of fish or fish habitat or the restoration of fish habitat, or for administering that Fund.

  • Marginal note:Recommendations of court

    (7) The court imposing the fine may recommend to the Minister that all or a portion of the fine credited to the Environmental Damages Fund be paid to a person or an organization specified by the court for a purpose referred to in subsection (6).

  • R.S., 1985, c. F-14, s. 40
  • 1991, c. 1, s. 10
  • 2012, c. 19, s. 147, c. 31, s. 174
  • 2019, c. 14, s. 27
 
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