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Canadian Aviation Regulations (SOR/96-433)

Regulations are current to 2019-08-28 and last amended on 2019-08-08. Previous Versions

Part VII — Commercial Air Services (continued)

Subpart 4 — Commuter Operations (continued)

Division IV — Aeroplane Performance Operating Limitations (continued)

Enroute Limitations with One Engine Inoperative

 No person shall operate a multi-engined aircraft with passengers on board if the weight of the aircraft is greater than the weight that will allow the aircraft to maintain, with any engine inoperative, the following altitudes:

  • (a) when operating in IMC or in IFR flight on airways or air routes, the MOCA of the route to be flown;

  • (b) when operating in IMC or in night VFR flight on routes established by an air operator, the MOCA of the route to be flown; and

  • (c) when operating in VFR flight, at least 500 feet above the surface.

Dispatch Limitations: Landing at Destination and Alternate Aerodromes
  •  (1) Subject to subsection (3), no person shall dispatch or conduct a take-off in an aeroplane unless

    • (a) in the case of a turbo-jet-powered aeroplane, the weight of the aeroplane on landing at the destination aerodrome and at the alternate aerodrome will allow a full-stop landing within 60% of the landing distance available (LDA);

    • (b) in the case of a large aeroplane that is propeller-driven, the weight of the aeroplane on landing at the destination aerodrome and at the alternate aerodrome will allow a full-stop landing within 70% of the landing distance available (LDA); or

    • (c) in the case of a large aeroplane that is propeller-driven and equipped with reverse thrust, the weight of the aeroplane on landing at the destination aerodrome and at the alternate aerodrome will allow a full-stop landing within 80% of the landing distance available (LDA) if

      • (i) the approach speed does not exceed an indicated airspeed of 100 knots, taking into account the estimated weight of the aeroplane, the flap setting and the ambient conditions expected on arrival,

      • (ii) the reverse thrust is operative and the runway surface conditions permit the use of full-rated reverse thrust,

      • (iii) the aeroplane is operated on a paved, hard-surface runway,

      • (iv) the runway surface is forecast to be bare and dry at the estimated time of arrival,

      • (v) each flight crew member has completed specific training on short-field landing techniques on that type of aeroplane within the 12 months preceding the flight, and

      • (vi) the glide-path angle specified in the Canada Air Pilot or the Restricted Canada Air Pilot is not greater than 3 degrees and the runway threshold crossing height is not greater than 15 m (50 feet).

  • (2) In determining whether an aeroplane may be dispatched or a take-off may be conducted under subsection (1), the following shall be taken into account:

    • (a) the pressure-altitude at the destination aerodrome and at the alternate aerodrome;

    • (b) a wind component that is not more than 50% of the reported headwind or not less than 150% of the reported tailwind at the destination aerodrome and at the alternate aerodrome; and

    • (c) the suitability of the runway with respect to the wind speed and direction, the ground handling characteristics of the aeroplane, the landing aids and the terrain.

  • (3) If conditions at the destination aerodrome at the time of take-off do not permit compliance with the requirement set out in paragraph (2)(c), an aeroplane may be dispatched and a take-off may be conducted if conditions at the alternate aerodrome designated in the operational flight plan permit, at the time of take-off, compliance with the requirements set out in paragraph (1)(a) or (b) and subsection (2).

  • SOR/2019-135, s. 5
Dispatch Limitations: Wet Runway — Turbo-jet-powered Aeroplanes
  •  (1) Subject to subsection (2), when weather reports or forecasts indicate that the runway may be wet at the estimated time of arrival, no person shall dispatch or conduct a take-off in a turbo-jet-powered aeroplane unless the landing distance available (LDA) at the destination airport is at least 115 per cent of the landing distance required pursuant to paragraph 704.49(1)(a).

  • (2) The landing distance available on a wet runway may be shorter than that required by subsection (1), but not shorter than that required by section 704.49, if the aircraft flight manual includes specific information about landing distances on wet runways.

Take-off and Landing on Gravel Runways
  •  (1) No air operator shall authorize a flight from or to a gravel runway in an aeroplane unless the company operations manual sets out procedures for take-offs and landings on gravel runways.

  • (2) No person shall conduct a take-off or landing in an aeroplane on a gravel runway unless the person has

    • (a) received ground training that includes the characteristics of take-off and landing surfaces, the conduct of obstacle assessments, and the air operator’s procedures for take-offs and landings on gravel runways;

    • (b) conducted, within the previous two years, at least one take-off and one landing on a gravel runway in an aeroplane of the same type as the one to be operated; and

    • (c) been certified by the chief pilot as being competent to conduct take-offs and landings on gravel runways.

  • SOR/2019-135, s. 6
Take-off and Landing on Unprepared Surfaces

 No person shall conduct a take-off or a landing on an unprepared surface in an aeroplane for which the aircraft flight manual does not set out any information relating to unprepared surface operations, unless

  • (a) the aeroplane is propeller-driven;

  • (b) the air operator has set out, in the company operations manual, procedures for take-offs and landings on unprepared surfaces, including

    • (i) procedures for obtaining the air operator’s approval for unprepared surface operations, and

    • (ii) procedures for assessing unprepared surfaces and unfamiliar approach and departure paths; and

  • (c) before acting as pilot-in-command during a take-off or a landing on an unprepared surface, the person has

    • (i) acquired at least 100 hours of flight time in an aeroplane of the same type as the one to be operated,

    • (ii) received ground and flight training that includes the characteristics of take-off and landing surfaces, the conduct of obstacle assessments and the interpretation of the applicable aeroplane performance information specified in the aircraft flight manual,

    • (iii) acquired at least 25 hours of line indoctrination training that includes unprepared surface operations, and

    • (iv) been certified by the chief pilot or his or her delegate as being competent to conduct take-offs and landings on unprepared surfaces.

  • SOR/2019-135, s. 6

[704.53 to 704.61 reserved]

Division V — Aircraft Equipment Requirements

General Requirements
  •  (1) No person shall operate an aircraft in IMC unless the aircraft is equipped with

    • (a) at least two generators, each of which, subject to subsection (2), is driven by a separate engine, and at least half of which have a sufficient rating to supply the electrical loads of all instruments and equipment necessary for the safe emergency operation of the aircraft; and

    • (b) two independent sources of energy and a means of selecting either source, at least one source of energy being an engine-driven pump or generator, and each source of energy being able to drive all gyroscopic instruments and being installed so that the failure of one instrument or one source of energy will affect neither the energy supply to the remaining instruments nor the other source of energy.

  • (2) In the case of a multi-engined helicopter, the generators required by paragraph (1)(a) may be driven by the main rotor drive train.

  • (3) No person shall operate an aircraft at night unless the aircraft is equipped with at least one landing light.

Operation of Aircraft in Icing Conditions
  •  (1) When icing conditions are reported to exist or are forecast to be encountered along the route of flight, no person shall authorize a flight or its continuation or conduct a take-off or continue a flight in an aircraft, even if the pilot-in-command determines that the aircraft is adequately equipped to operate in icing conditions in accordance with paragraph 605.30(a), if, in the opinion of the pilot-in-command, the safety of the flight might be adversely affected.

  • (2) No person shall operate an aeroplane in icing conditions at night unless the aeroplane is equipped with a means to illuminate or otherwise detect the formation of ice.

  • SOR/2009-152, s. 16
Airborne Thunderstorm Detection and Weather Radar Equipment

 No person shall operate an aircraft with passengers on board in IMC when current weather reports or forecasts indicate that thunderstorms may reasonably be expected along the route to be flown, unless the aircraft is equipped with thunderstorm detection equipment or weather radar equipment.

Additional Equipment for Single-pilot Operations

 No person shall operate an aircraft on a single-pilot operation in IMC unless the aircraft is equipped with

  • (a) an auto-pilot that is capable of operating the aircraft controls to maintain flight and manoeuvre the aircraft about the lateral and longitudinal axes;

  • (b) a headset with a boom microphone or equivalent and a transmit button on the control column; and

  • (c) a chart holder that is equipped with a light and that is placed in an easily readable position.

 
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